Knowledge, attitude, and perception of University students toward COVID-19 Pandemic

Background: An increasing rate of COVID-19 cases throughout the world has increased the need to investigate the knowledge, attitude, and perception (KAP) of university students toward the COVID-19 pandemic to prevent its rapid spread as public cooperation and awareness regarding prevention is the only way to deal with this pandemic. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Pakistan in April 2020. Data was collected by Google statistics and percent reliability was calculated through SPSS. Results: The number of respondents n=678, out of which 443(65.2%) were female and 235(34.85%) were male. The perception of students regarding this disease is shown in a table in which 33.2% of students consider it very dangerous. 54.2% thought it moderately dangerous. 62.38% of students consider muscle pain and 73.59% of students consider throat pain as a clinical presentation of COVID-19. 80.7% of students thought that exposure to a suspected case of COVID-19 serves as a means of acquiring COVID-19 infection. The most effective measure of prevention comes out to be hand washing and covering face during coughing and sneezing. The main cause of the spread is a lack of public awareness and cooperation. Social media campaigns are an effective means of educating students about quarantine and controlling its rapid spread. Conclusion: Researchers concluded that It’s the need of the hour to increase awareness related to protective hygienic measures, rapid spread, and providing reliable approaches through social media campaigns to manage this pandemic. We believe that students should be involved in educating their surrounding society. Read More …

A Case Report of Neonatal posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in a premature infant.

Background: Neurosurgical services in the Maldives began around five years ago, but the first neurosurgical center is responsible for various emergency and clinical neurosurgical services. Published literature on neurosurgery from the Maldives Islands is limited. It is imperative to report unique cases from isolated countries to promote diversity for readers across the globe. Case Presentation: We present a case of a ventriculo-subgaleal shunt placement in an extremely premature male baby with intra-ventricular hemorrhage, causing communicating hydrocephalus born at 22 weeks of gestation weighing 600 grams to a young primigravida. The shunt was performed in the first month of life (780 grams) for communicating hydrocephalus secondary to the germinal matrix bleed into the ventricles. Conclusion: Ventriculo-subgalel shunt under local anesthesia is a promising measure to treat hydrocephalus in pre-term very low birth weight infants secondary to germinal matrix hemorrhage. Read More …

Employment Preferences and Self-Perceived Confidence of House-Officers across Dental Teaching Institutions of Lahore

Introduction: Despite progressive statistics, the oral healthcare system suffers from an unevenly distributed workforce, lack of infrastructure, and reduced quality of dental education. As a result, dental graduates have decreased job satisfaction and limited career prospects. This article assesses the perceptions of dental graduates regarding their workforce skills, abilities, and employment preferences. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study targeting House-Officers from various randomly selected dental teaching institutes of Lahore. The study tool was a modified version of the questionnaire used by Manakil and George and assessed the perceptions of dental graduates regarding their workforce skills and preferences.[14] This study aimed to evaluate the self-perceived confidence of new dental graduates, and investigate the relationship between gender perceptions. Results: The sample size was 256 House- Officers. Most participants were confident in their skills and abilities with 167 (65.4%) individuals confident in workforce integration, 166 (64.8%) confident in their patient management skills, 154(60.2%) confident in their interpersonal skills, and 163 (63.7%) confident in their leadership abilities. The mentorship was considered to be crucial by 207 (80.9%) individuals. Two hundred and thirty-three (91%) individuals were willing for an additional year of internship and 174 (68%) participants chose city-based employment. The government sector was the most preferred for employment by 122 (47.7%) individuals whereas research was least preferred. Conclusion: Career development and mentorship programs must be put into practice, incentives are provided to work in rural areas and research culture is promoted. Read More …

Audit Of Genito-Anal Injuries In Male And Female Sexual Abuse Cases – A Retrospective Study.

Background: Sexual assault is a global issue wherein timely examination of sexual assault victims by medico-legal officers and an understanding of the characteristics and factors influencing their injuries have a crucial impact on medico-legal evidence collection and its use in the court. Genital injury findings improve the level of justice for victims, but the lack of injury does not negate the possibility of sexual violence incurred on the victim. The following study describes in great detail the different factors associated with injury characteristics and the medico-legal importance of all these factors. Methodology: It was a retrospective descriptive study conducted at the Forensic Medicine Department of King Edward Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan. All the cases included that fulfill the predefined inclusion criteria were included. A record chart was designed, and six years’ data was recorded in it from the medical records of the medico-legal clinic. It was entered and edited manually. Methods used to prevent data entry errors included double entry and validation following data entry Difference of proportions between variables, where appropriate, has been calculated by Pearson Chi-Square test and Fischer Exact test at 95% confidence interval. Data were analyzed using SPSS v23. All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were following the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and the Helsinki declaration. Results: Genito anal injury was present in 28.2% cases and was absent in 71.8% cases. Most of the victims were aged 11 to 15 years. The most common injury in the victims was a tear. In females, the most common injury site was the vagina, while the perianal area was the most injured site in males. There was a significant relation (p<0.05) between type and site of injury, gender, site of injury, and prior sexual intercourse experience and prevalence rate of injury. Conclusion: This study concludes that the presence of injuries in the Genito anal area is suggestive of sexual assault and provides useful court evidence. Read More …

COVID-19 and H1N1 – The two pandemics and their consequences on human life: A Mini-Review

Background: A global pandemic has always been the after-effect of lessened immunity in the human population. This is a brief narrative review comparing some points of both pandemics. Methods: A comparative study was conducted by data collection through published articles and official websites. Conclusion: The current pandemic has affected all aspects of life. Psychological issues are dominating in this COVID-19 pandemic especially in six different groups of people. Emergency responses process was slower in COVID-19 pandemic than that of H1N1. H1N1 pandemic of 2009 proved to have a lesser impact on education, traveling, even the mental state of people. COVID-19 and H1N1 infections have most of the similar things but distinctions are very subordinating. Read More …

Emerging Prophylactic Strategies to Combat COVID-19: A Systematic Review

Introduction: In December 2019, China faced the COVID-19 outbreak. COVID-19 is a disease caused by the pathogen, SARS-CoV-2 which is a single stranded RNA virus that spreads person to person via direct contact or respiratory droplets. Since this disease has been found to be highly contagious, prevention from virus exposure seems to be a reasonable approach especially due to lack of an effective vaccination up till now. Our study is aimed at proposing the prophylactic strategies that can be implemented in Pakistan to help flatten the disease curve in order to provide more time for healthcare professionals to fight the disease better and to hopefully come up with an effective vaccination for long term disease control. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review based on PRISMA guidelines. Only those articles were included which met the inclusion criteria. Results: The results gathered by the literature search suggested that due to the lack of any licensed vaccine or effective treatment, adopting personal and environmental protective measures, isolation and quarantine, and other community mitigation measures like temporary lockdown can help flatten the peak of the ongoing pandemic. Conclusion: Since there has not been any breakthrough in finding an effective vaccine, our review aims to devise an effective preventive strategy to curb this pandemic according to the present socio-economic conditions of Pakistan. Read More …

Protecting the mental health of healthcare workers in Pakistan using telehealth during the COVID-19 pandemic

The role of telehealth and its effect on reducing mental health burden from COVID-19 is of pressing concern. It is pertinent that the psychological impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic must be recognized within the group of health care workers. Telemental health services are area that require imminent intervention for the support of health care workers in Pakistan, as they are applicable and practically feasible. Read More …

Re: Management of dead bodies of COVID-19 victims

Khadeeja Farrukh Student, 2nd year MBBS, Fatima Jinnah Medical University, Lahore.   Electronic Opinion (E-OP) to Last Rituals and handling of deceased in corona pandemic. 2020;1(2):91-92. Available from: doi: 10.37978/pjsm.v1i2.129 Corresponding Author: Khadeeja Farrukh, 2nd year MBBS, Fatima Jinnah Medical University, Lahore. Contact Author. Submission: Jun 23, 2020Acceptance: Aug 10, 2020Publication : Oct 5, 2020 © Author(s) (or their employer(s) 2020. Re-use permitted Read More …

Re: COVID 19 – once in a century pathogen

Aleeza Fatima Student, 2nd year MBBS, Services Institute of Medical Sciences, Lahore.   Electronic Opinion (E-OP) to COVID-19 Pandemic: How, When and Where? Pak J Surg Med. 2020;1(2):127-132. Available from: doi : 10.37978/pjsm.v1i2.173. Corresponding Author: Aleeza Fatima, 2nd year MBBS, Services Institute of Medical Sciences, Lahore. Contact Author.Submission: Jun 23, 2020Acceptance: Aug 10, 2020Publication : Oct 4, 2020 © Author(s) (or their Read More …